Watercolor, gouache and ink were applied as washes, in which the medium is applied in a thin layer using broad strokes that cover a large area. Ink in its undiluted state is very thin and can be applied without adding water. Watercolors and gouache need to be thinned with water to produce a consistency that can be applied as a wash. Watercolors and gouache were mixed in several different proportions with water. As more water is added the wash becomes more transparent and the color more muted. A Princeton Art and Brush Company 3/4" synthetic sable flat wash brush was used to apply the wash.